Project Fate (プロジェクト「F.A.T.E」 Purojiekuto "F.A.T.E"), also referred to as Project F (プロジェクトF Purojiekuto F), was a decades-spanning cloning experiment led by Jail Scaglietti, who developed the fundamentals of the project. Precia Testarossa was able to complete her work at least five years before the events of the first season. Due to its dubious nature, the project was outlawed in Midchilda; Precia had run it from her pocket dimension, the Garden of Time, while in hiding.
The primary goal of Project Fate was to develop a secure method of transferring a person's memories and personality to another body, specifically, to the body of an Artificial Mage.
Project Fate originated as a sub-project of another illegal practice, the creation of an Artificial Mage. Artificial mages are, in short, manufactured human beings created while taking as a base personages with specific genetic material within their DNA. The resulting individual is then put through in vivo experiments and/or receives cybernetic implants. This is done so to promote the emergence of distinctive magical abilities within the artificial mage.
Whatever it was, because of a flaw in the genetic manipulation and in vitro fertilization processes or as a by-product of the severe tests placed upon them, most artificial mages presented cognitive and language abilities far too underdeveloped to meet with the project's expectations. It was possibly while researching for a way to avoid such shortcomings that the scientist Jail Scaglietti came up with the basis which would later be the foundation of the Project Fate. The concept behind the Project was to "transplant" the memories and knowledge of the base-individual into the artificial mage.
Because of its possible approach as a way of resurrection of the dead, Project Fate caught the attention of many both inside and outside the magical-scientific community. One of such people was Precia Testarossa. Using her expertise in the field of the creation of familiars, another kind of artificial being, Precia was able to complete Scaglietti's work and produce her own artificial human.
Both the creation of artificial mages and the reproduction of individuals through the Project Fate are illegal practices by the Time-Space Administration Bureau's laws.
Prior to the events of the first season, Precia lost her young daughter, Alicia Testarossa, in an accident that occurred during one of her experiments dealing with the production and manipulation of dimensional disturbances. Guilt and sadness eventually drove the woman insane. The superpowered, intelligent mage then began research on how to bring her daughter back to life. This eventually lead her to involve herself with illegal experiments related to the Project Fate.
Precia was eventually successful in creating a perfect clone of her daughter. However, the mad-woman was unable to accept her manufactured copy as a replacement for her daughter. Precia eventually came to hate Alicia's clone, going as far as regarding her like a thing instead of a person. To differentiate the clone from her real daughter, Precia named her after the same project that brought the girl to life: Fate Testarossa.
During the events of the first season, Precia manipulated Fate to do her bidding and used the girl to complete her new plan to revive Alicia: open a pathway to Al-Hazard, a place where many forgotten and forsaken magics and technologies are supposedly sealed away.
In the third season, Magical Girl Lyrical Nanoha StrikerS, Jail Scaglietti refers to Project Fate simply as "Project F". Erio Mondial is later revealed as another "child of Project F", being a clone of a rich couple's son who had died. Erio's "parents" searched for scientists related to the project and paid them to "revive their son". The child was eventually taken away from them when his true nature was exposed. After he was killed by Cinque in the Combat Cyborg Incident, Zest Grangeitz was resurrected by Scaglietti using the technology of Project F to serve as Lutecia Alpine's protector.
Another character, Vivio, was created under the project as a resurrected Saint King of Belkan lore. One of the first, if not the first, total success of Project Fate in completely resurrecting someone from the grave (at least according to Jail).
Using the completed Project Fate Jail managed to create a dozen perfect clones of him that were inside every single Number's womb which were to activate should he be killed and would restart everything, however none of them were ever activated.